Pacific Fruit Fly Project

Pacifly is the Pacific 's fruit fly web page which contains information about economic and non economic species of fruit flies in all the Pacific Island Countries and Territorries. Fruitflies are serious pests throughout tropical and sub tropical countries. They constitute of one of the worlds major insect pest in fresh fruits and fleshy vegetables. In every PICT, there is at least one damaging endemic fruit fly species present. Fruitflies cause direct losses to  fruit production and  in instances  where exotic species became established in a country, very expensive eradication programes had to be carried out. The Pacifly aims to provide detailed information of everything related to Fruit flies.

Bactrocera frauenfeldi (Schiner) - MANGO FLY
Monday, 21 January 2013 10:01

Female mango fly     (Photo: S. Wilson)

DISTRIBUTION: Widespread throughout Papua New Guinea (but uncommon in the Highlands), Solomon Islands, Palau, Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Gilbert Islands of Kiribati and Nauru. It is present and abundant even on remote atolls. Introduced and established into Northern Queensland (Australia) around 1974, and now present from Cape York Peninsula south to Townsville.

HOST PLANTS: A polyphagous species recorded from more than 73 host plant species in 49 genera and 30 families. The following table compiles previously published host plant records in Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Federated States of Micronesia: Detailed host list.

BIOLOGY: Adults mate during the day. One female can lay an average of at least 25 eggs in 24 hours. Egg incubation lasts about 2 days.

Rate of development was on papaya-based diet was studied in FSM and Solomon Islands. At 25.9° C, almost all larvae are going through the first instar during 48 to 72 hours after egg laying. Between 96 and 108 hours, over 90% have reached the second instar in FSM (68 and 80 hours in Solomon Islands). Third instars appeared at 120 hours and after 192 hours, nearly 90% have reached this stage in FSM, but in Solomon Islands appeared at 92 hours and were dominant after 128 hours. By 204 hours, mature larvae started to exit the diet to pupate and the largest numbers of larvae exited at 252 hours. Larval development takes 10.5 days in FSM. Pupal stage duration is 11 days. Mean total development time from egg to adult is 21.5 days in FSM.

This species is very common in village situations, where host trees abound, and much less common in rainforest. It is extremely abundant throughout the year on Pohnpei. In East New Britain and Solomon Islands, it is most common from November to January, which coincides with the main mango fruiting season. It prefers attacking commercial fruits and edible hosts over wild fruits.

This species is kept in laboratory colonies in Federated States of Micronesia, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea and Palau. Preliminary and incomplete heat tolerance studies were done in FSM and Solomon Islands.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Damage assessments have provided data on percent of ripe edible fruits infested by mango fly larvae. In Federated States of Micronesia:   guava (31-91%), tropical almond (69%), Surinam cherry (61%), avocado (57%), Tahitian chestnut (56%), Syzygium spp apples (38-51%), breadfruit (37%), soursop (28%), pond apple (26%), tangerine (20%), carambola (18%), mango (8%), orange (4%), and acerola (3.7%). In Papua New Guinea: guava (17-98%), carambola (1-98%), cashew (6-66%), mandarin (0.5%), Tahitian chestnut (28-42%, infested by mango fly and B. moluccensis), fallen mango (53%), tropical almond (22-80%), yellow mangosteen (18%), ripe papaya (15%), and ripe banana (0.5%). In Solomon Islands: guava (30%). In Kiribati, Infestation levels are 70-80% on guava and 90% on Indian jujube in Tarawa. The suspected cause of fruit rot that infects 70-80% of breadfruits in Butaritari atoll could be contributed by mango fly damage on fruit, but has however not been confirmed.

MALE LURE: Cue-lure.

QUARANTINE SURVEILLANCE: Cue-lure trapping and regular host fruit surveys of high risk species, especially breadfruit, guava, mango, Tahitian chestnut, Syzygium apples and tropical almond.

OPTIONS FOR RESPONSE (If newly discovered in a country): Increased trapping, increased host fruit sampling, restriction of fruit movement, protein bait spraying, male annihilation in small island situations, as in Nauru.

CONTROL: Fruit bagging, protein bait spraying, destruction of fallen and overripe fruits, early harvest of mature green fruits.

Drew, R.A.I. 1989.The tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) of the Australasian and Oceanian regions. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. Volume 26. 521 pp. (Description and illustration). 
Leblanc, L., Allwood, A.J. 1997. Mango Fruit Fly. South Pacific Commission Pest Advisory Leaflet. 4pp. (Extension leaflet also translated into PNG Tok Pisin) View the Tok pisin leaflet. 
Leblanc, L., Allwood, A.J. 1997. Mango fruit fly (Bactrocera frauenfeldi (Schiner)): Why so many in Federated States of Micronesia? pp.125-130 in: Allwood, A.J., and Drew, R.A I., Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. ACIAR Proceedings No 76. 267pp. (Host list, damage assessments, seasonal abundance).
, L., Hollingsworth, R. 1997. Rate of development of immature stages of Bactrocera frauenfeldi in papaya-based diet. pp.164-167 in: Allwood, A.J., and Drew, R.A I., Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. ACIAR Proceedings No 76. 267pp. 
Leblanc, L., Leweniqila, L., Tau, D., Tumukon, T., Kassim, A., Hollingsworth, R. 1997. Can fruit flies be controlled in a village with a mixed orchard? Pacific Island experiences. pp.187-191 in: Allwood, A.J., and Drew, R.A I., Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. ACIAR Proceedings No 76. 267pp. (Experiments on mango fly in FSM and Solomon Islands). 
Tenakanai, D. 1997. Fruit fly fauna in Papua New Guinea. pp. 87-94 in: Allwood, A.J., and Drew, R.A I., Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. ACIAR Proceedings No 76. 267pp. (Host list).
, M., Hollingsworth, R., Tsatsia, F. 1997. Fruit fly fauna in Solomon Islands. pp. 81-86 in: Allwood, A.J., and Drew, R.A I., Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. ACIAR Proceedings No 76. 267pp. (Host list, seasonal abundance).

Download Pest Advisory Leaflet on Mango Fly in English (344 Kb)