Pacific Fruit Fly Project

Pacifly is the Pacific 's fruit fly web page which contains information about economic and non economic species of fruit flies in all the Pacific Island Countries and Territorries. Fruitflies are serious pests throughout tropical and sub tropical countries. They constitute of one of the worlds major insect pest in fresh fruits and fleshy vegetables. In every PICT, there is at least one damaging endemic fruit fly species present. Fruitflies cause direct losses to  fruit production and  in instances  where exotic species became established in a country, very expensive eradication programes had to be carried out. The Pacifly aims to provide detailed information of everything related to Fruit flies.

Monday, 14 January 2013 12:54

Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) is a large territory of 57 islands and atolls. Total land mass is 701 km². The country is administratively divided into four states (Kosrae, Pohnpei, Chuuk, Yap), each with its government. The three largest islands are Pohnpei (334 km², 772m), Kosrae (109) km², 629m), and Yap (100 km², 147m).

Fruit fly activities in FSM were initiated in December, 1994 by the Regional Fruit Fly Project (RFFP) funded by UNDP and AusAID. The Project provided a United Nations Volunteer (UNV) who worked in FSM for 2.5 years. The Division of Sectoral Development (Agriculture) of the FSM Department of Economic Affairs coordinates the project and College of Micronesia's Land Grant Program and FSM government have matched the RFFP funds and provided a National counterpart technician. Since the UNV has left (May 1997), the SPC Plant Protection in Micronesia Project has assisted the Fruit Fly Project by the coordination of quarantine surveillance.

The fruit fly research facility is hosted by the College of Micronesia, Land Grant Program Agriculture Experiment Station in Kolonia Town, Pohnpei Island. For additional information, contact:

Mr. John Wichep, Quarantine Coordinator, Agriculture Quarantine Unit
Department of Economic Affairs, PO Box PS 12, Palikir
Pohnpei, FM 96941, Federated States of Micronesia
Tel: (691) 320-7523/2646         Fax: (691) 320-5854
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FRUIT FLY SPECIES: Only one species: mango fly (Bactrocera frauenfeldi (Schiner). It is widespread over every islands of FSM, even on remote atolls.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF FRUIT FLIES: Damage assessments have provided data on percent of ripe edible fruits infested by mango fly larvae in FSM: guava (31-91%), tropical almond (69%), Surinam cherry (61%), avocado (57%), Tahitian chestnut (56%), Syzygium spp apples (38-51%), breadfruit (37%), soursop (28%), pond apple (26%), tangerine (20%), carambola (18%), mango (8%), orange (4%), and acerola (3.7%).


Program establishment and surveys. 1. Establishment of a permanent fruit fly research laboratory, including a rearing facility. 2. General survey in all States to verify that mango fly is the only species in FSM. 3. Fruit fly trapping in 78 sites on six volcanic islands and five atolls (30 sites remaining at present). 4. Host fruit surveying that has identified 35 species attacked by mango fly.

Fruit fly rearing laboratory in Pohnpei, FSM (Photo: L. Leblanc)


Pest status. 5. Detailed data on the levels of damage on each commercial host - see above.

Laboratory colonies. 6. Establishment laboratory colonies of mango flies for research. 7. Experimental determination of the duration of each immature stage of mango fly.

Field control. 8. Preliminary field control experiment by protein bait spraying. 9. Introduction and release of two species of parasitoid wasps (Fopius arisanus released and established on Pohnpei and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata released on Kosrae) for biological control of mango fly.

Post harvest treatments and export markets. 10. Experimental demonstration that limes (Citrus aurantifolia) and Yapese lemons (C. hystrix) are not mango fly hosts, using New Zealand's MAF Regulatory Authority Standard 150.02.02. 11. Initiation of negotiations with USDA for an eventual or conditional lift of the ban to lime and Yapese lemon export to Guam. 12. Preliminary experiments to determine tolerance of immature stages to heat, to eventually develop post harvest treatment of fruits for export.

Development of national expertise. 13. Training of research assistants and State counterpart staff from quarantine and extension.

Data preservation and publication. 14. Development of databases to preserve all raw data from trapping, host surveying, laboratory colonies, and bait spraying experiments. 15. Ten trip reports, one host status testing report, five periodic technical reports, a practical guide to fruit fly surveying and a status report have been produced and distributed. 16. Research results published as four scientific papers and one pest advisory leaflet. 17. A two hour video documentary on fruit fly research and control in FSM has been produced and shown on television.

Emergency response planning. 18. Development of an emergency response plan to apply in case of exotic fruit fly detection in FSM.

STATUS OF QUARANTINE SURVEILLANCE (as of October 2007): There are 36 trapping sites, each with one Cue-lure and one methyl eugenol trap. All states are covered: Pohnpei (13 sites on Pohnpei Island), Kosrae (5 sites), Chuuk (6 sites on Chuuk Lagoon Islands), and Yap (6 sites on Yap Island). High risk commodities regularly sampled on Pohnpei are guava, papaya, Tropical almond, Tahitian chestnut, and Syzygium apples. All trapping and host fruit survey data are compiled on Excel spreadsheets. There are fruit fly posters and quarantine bins at the four State airports, and posters at the wharves. There is a quarantine awareness program running on radio.

Leblanc, L. 1995. Practical guide for fruit fly surveys in Federated States of Micronesia. RFFP Fruit fly guide No 1. 16pp.
, L. 1996. Development of quarantine surveillance and emergency response planning for exotic fruit flies in the Federated States of Micronesia.  RFFP mission report No 7. 23pp.

, L. 1997. Fruit fly fauna in Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, Palau, Kiribati, Northern Marianas and Marshall Islands. pp.64-67 in: All
wood, A.J., and Drew, R.A I., Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. ACIAR Proceedings No 76. 267pp. (Overview). 
Leblanc, L., Allwood, A.J. 1997. Mango Fruit Fly. South Pacific Commission Pest Advisory Leaflet. 4pp. (Extension leaflet).

, L., Allwood, A.J. 1997. Mango fruit fly (Bactrocera frauenfeldi (Schiner)): Why so many in Federated States of Micronesia? pp.125-130 in: Allwood, A.J., and Drew, R.A I., Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. ACIAR Proceedings No 76. 267pp. (Host list, damage assessments, seasonal abundance).
, L., Englberger, K., William, J. 1999. Status report on fruit flies (Tephritidae) and quarantine surveillance in Federated States of Micronesia. RMFFP pub
lication. 23pp.  
Leblanc, L., Hollingsworth, R. 1997. Rate of development of immature stages of Bactrocera frauenfeldi in papaya-based diet. pp.164-167 in: Allwood, A
.J., and Drew, R.A I., Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. ACIAR Proceedings No 76. 267pp. (Experiment on Pohnpei). 
Leblanc, L., Leweniqila, L., Tau, D., Tumukon, T., Kassim, A., Hollingsworth, R. 1997. Can fruit flies be controlled in a village with a mixed orchard? Pacific Island experiences. pp.187-191 in: Allwood, A.J., and Drew, R.A I., Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. ACIAR Proceedings No 76
. 267pp. (Experiments on mango fly control in FSM).

Download Pest Advisory Leaflet on Mango Fly in English (344 Kb)