|Bactrocera umbrosa (Fabricius) - BREADFRUIT FLY|
|Monday, 21 January 2013 14:17|
DISTRIBUTION: Widespread and very common in Malaysia, southern Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, Palau, Papua New Guinea (much less common in the Highlands), Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and New Caledonia.
HOST PLANTS: Host range restricted to Artocarpus spp. (Moraceae): breadfruit (A. altilis), jackfruit (A. heterophyllus), chempedak (A. integer) (record from Asia). Host records from other families in Asia to be verified.
BIOLOGY: Adults mate at dusk. This very common species causes considerable damage to breadfruit by ovipositing in ripe breadfruit, but also younger fruits, causing premature ripening and drop of fruits. In Solomon Islands, populations peak in December-January, which corresponds to the main breadfruit season. This species has been kept in laboratory colonies in New Caledonia, reared on potato-carrot diet, and in Vanuatu and Solomon Islands on breadfruit-based diet.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Damage assessments have shown that it attacks 30% of breadfruits in Vanuatu and up to 75% of breadfruits in Papua New Guinea (in combination with B. frauenfeldi).
MALE LURE: Methyl eugenol.
QUARANTINE SURVEILLANCE: Methyl eugenol trapping and regular host fruit surveys of breadfruit.
OPTIONS FOR RESPONSE (If newly discovered in a country): Increased trapping, increased host fruit sampling, restriction of fruit movement, protein bait spraying, male annihilation.