Pacific Fruit Fly Project

Pacifly is the Pacific 's fruit fly web page which contains information about economic and non economic species of fruit flies in all the Pacific Island Countries and Territorries. Fruitflies are serious pests throughout tropical and sub tropical countries. They constitute of one of the worlds major insect pest in fresh fruits and fleshy vegetables. In every PICT, there is at least one damaging endemic fruit fly species present. Fruitflies cause direct losses to  fruit production and  in instances  where exotic species became established in a country, very expensive eradication programes had to be carried out. The Pacifly aims to provide detailed information of everything related to Fruit flies.

Bactrocera passiflorae (Froggatt)
Monday, 21 January 2013 13:18


Female B. passiflorae (Photo: S. Wilson) Female B. passiflorae laying eggs in fruit  
(Photo: S. Wilson)

DISTRIBUTION: Fiji, Niue, Wallis and Futuna. There is also has a separate form of B. passiflorae, with paler abdomen. This undescribed new species occurs in Fiji, Tuvalu, Tokelau and possibly the Niuas group in Tonga. Its host range and potential pest status have not yet been well studied.

HOST PLANTS: A polyphagous pest species recorded from at least 55 host plant species in 42 genera and 29 families. Published host records from Fiji are: Detailed host list.

BIOLOGY: Adults mate at dusk. Females oviposit in ripening fruits as well as in fallen fruits. This species is common in both village/orchard and forest habitats.

Rate of development was studied in Fiji in whole fruit (papaya, eggplant, breadfruit). In papaya, eggs hatch in 36 hours. After 96 hours, 80% of the larvae have reached the second instar, and 96% have reached the third instar after 144 hours. By 192 hours, mature larvae start to exit the diet to pupate. Adults start emerging from pupae after 480 hours.

This species is kept in laboratory colonies, reared on papaya-based diet, in Fiji Islands. Heat tolerance studies were done in Fiji Islands and published.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Damage assessments data are expressed as percent of ripe edible fruits infested by larvae. In Fiji Islands, damage levels are 60% on kumquats, 40-90% on guavas, 62% on kavika (Syzygium malaccense), and 20-25% on mangoes.

MALE LURE: Cue-lure.

QUARANTINE SURVEILLANCE: Cue-lure trapping and regular host fruit surveys of high risk species, especially mango, guava, Tahitian chestnut, tropical almond, breadfruit, Syzygium, and citrus.

OPTIONS FOR RESPONSE (If newly discovered in a country): Increased trapping, increased host fruit sampling, restriction of fruit movement, protein bait spraying, possibly male annihilation.

CONTROL: Fruit bagging, protein bait spraying, destruction of fallen and overripe fruits, early harvest of mature green fruits.

REFERENCES:
Drew, R.A.I. 1989.The tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) of the Australasian and Oceanian regions. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. Volume 26. 521 pp. (Description and illustration). 
Leblanc, L., Leweniqila, L., Tau, D., Tumukon, T., Kassim, Hollingsworth, R. 1997. Can fruit flies be controlled in a village with a mixed orchard? Pacific Island experiences. pp.187-191 in: Allwood, A.J., and Drew, R.A I., Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. ACIAR Proceedings No 76. 267pp. (Control on guava).  
Leweniqila, L., Heimoana, V., Purea, M., Munro, L., Allwood, A.J.,  Ralulu, L., Tora Vueti, E. 1997. Seasonal abundances of Bactrocera facialis (Coquillett), B. passiflorae (Froggatt), B. xanthodes (Broun) and B. melanotus (Coquillett) in orchard and forest habitats.  pp.121-124 in: Allwood, A.J., and Drew, R.A I., Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. ACIAR Proceedings No 76. 267pp. (Ecology, seasonal abundance).
Leweniqila
, L., Allwood, A.J., Kassim, A., Tora Vueti, E., Ralulu, L., Walker, G. 1997. Results of protein bait spraying in Fiji and Cook Islands. pp.183-186 in: Allwood, A.J., and Drew, R.A I., Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. ACIAR Proceedings No 76. 267pp. (Control on guava and mango).
Leweniqila
, L., Allwood, A.J., Tora Vueti, E., Ralulu, L., Balawakula, A. 1997. Rate of development of immature stages of Bactrocera passiflorae (Froggatt) in eggplant and pawpaw. pp.168-170 in: Allwood, A.J., and Drew, R.A I., Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. ACIAR Proceedings No 76. 267pp. (Rearing, rate of development). 
Tora Vueti, E., Hamacek, E.L., Kassim, A., Walker, G.P., Balawakula, A., Ralulu, L., Leweniqila, L., Kumar, D. 1997. Effectiveness of various larval diets for rearing Bactrocera passiflorae (Froggatt) and B. xanthodes (Broun) in the laboratory in Fiji.   pp.153-156 in: Allwood, A.J., and Drew, R.A I., Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. ACIAR Proceedings No 76. 267pp. (Rearing methods).
Tora Vueti
, E., Ralulu, L., Leweniqila, L., Balawakula, A., Frampton, C.M. 1997. Heat tolerances of immature stages of Bactrocera passiflorae (Froggatt) and B. xanthodes (Broun) in Fiji.  pp.234-238 in: Allwood, A.J., and Drew, R.A I., Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. ACIAR Proceedings No 76. 267pp. 
Tora Vueti, E., Ralulu, L., Walker, G.P., Allwood, A.J., Leweniqila, L., Balawakula, A. 1997. Host availability - Its impact on seasonal abundance of fruit flies.  pp.105-110 in: Allwood, A.J., and Drew, R.A I., Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. ACIAR Proceedings No 76. 267pp. (Ecology, seasonal abundance).