|Bactrocera frauenfeldi (Schiner) - MANGO FLY|
|Monday, 21 January 2013 10:01|
Female mango fly (Photo: S. Wilson)
DISTRIBUTION: Widespread throughout Papua New Guinea (but uncommon in the Highlands), Solomon Islands, Palau, Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Gilbert Islands of Kiribati and Nauru. It is present and abundant even on remote atolls. Introduced and established into Northern Queensland (Australia) around 1974, and now present from Cape York Peninsula south to Townsville.
HOST PLANTS: A polyphagous species recorded from more than 73 host plant species in 49 genera and 30 families. The following table compiles previously published host plant records in Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Federated States of Micronesia: Detailed host list.
BIOLOGY: Adults mate during the day. One female can lay an average of at least 25 eggs in 24 hours. Egg incubation lasts about 2 days.
Rate of development was on papaya-based diet was studied in FSM and Solomon Islands. At 25.9° C, almost all larvae are going through the first instar during 48 to 72 hours after egg laying. Between 96 and 108 hours, over 90% have reached the second instar in FSM (68 and 80 hours in Solomon Islands). Third instars appeared at 120 hours and after 192 hours, nearly 90% have reached this stage in FSM, but in Solomon Islands appeared at 92 hours and were dominant after 128 hours. By 204 hours, mature larvae started to exit the diet to pupate and the largest numbers of larvae exited at 252 hours. Larval development takes 10.5 days in FSM. Pupal stage duration is 11 days. Mean total development time from egg to adult is 21.5 days in FSM.
This species is very common in village situations, where host trees abound, and much less common in rainforest. It is extremely abundant throughout the year on Pohnpei. In East New Britain and Solomon Islands, it is most common from November to January, which coincides with the main mango fruiting season. It prefers attacking commercial fruits and edible hosts over wild fruits.
This species is kept in laboratory colonies in Federated States of Micronesia, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea and Palau. Preliminary and incomplete heat tolerance studies were done in FSM and Solomon Islands.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Damage assessments have provided data on percent of ripe edible fruits infested by mango fly larvae. In Federated States of Micronesia: guava (31-91%), tropical almond (69%), Surinam cherry (61%), avocado (57%), Tahitian chestnut (56%), Syzygium spp apples (38-51%), breadfruit (37%), soursop (28%), pond apple (26%), tangerine (20%), carambola (18%), mango (8%), orange (4%), and acerola (3.7%). In Papua New Guinea: guava (17-98%), carambola (1-98%), cashew (6-66%), mandarin (0.5%), Tahitian chestnut (28-42%, infested by mango fly and B. moluccensis), fallen mango (53%), tropical almond (22-80%), yellow mangosteen (18%), ripe papaya (15%), and ripe banana (0.5%). In Solomon Islands: guava (30%). In Kiribati, Infestation levels are 70-80% on guava and 90% on Indian jujube in Tarawa. The suspected cause of fruit rot that infects 70-80% of breadfruits in Butaritari atoll could be contributed by mango fly damage on fruit, but has however not been confirmed.
MALE LURE: Cue-lure.
QUARANTINE SURVEILLANCE: Cue-lure trapping and regular host fruit surveys of high risk species, especially breadfruit, guava, mango, Tahitian chestnut, Syzygium apples and tropical almond.
OPTIONS FOR RESPONSE (If newly discovered in a country): Increased trapping, increased host fruit sampling, restriction of fruit movement, protein bait spraying, male annihilation in small island situations, as in Nauru.
Download Pest Advisory Leaflet on Mango Fly in English (344 Kb)