Bactrocera facialis (Photo: S. Wilson)
DISTRIBUTION: Widespread in Tonga, but absent from Niuas islands group.
HOST PLANTS: A polyphagous pest that attacks 72 host species in 54 genera and 33 families. The following list includes published records from surveys in Tonga: Detailed host list.
BIOLOGY: Adults mate at dusk. This species is common in both village and forest habitats. Laboratory colonies are maintained in Tonga, with larvae reared on papaya-based diet. Heat tolerance studies have been completed in Tonga and published.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: This species is potentially a major pest species, especially if it is spread outside Tonga. Damage assessments in Tonga, as percent of ripe edible fruits infested by at least one larva, are: chilli (89-97%), capsicum (97-100%) and guava (90% overall infestation by B. facialis and B. kirki).
MALE LURE: Cue-lure.
QUARANTINE SURVEILLANCE: Cue-lure trapping and regular host fruit surveys of high risk species, especially breadfruit, capsicum, chilli, guava, mango, Tahitian chestnut, Syzygium apples and tropical almond.
OPTIONS FOR RESPONSE (If newly discovered in a country): Increased trapping, increased host fruit sampling, restriction of fruit movement, protein bait spraying.
CONTROL: Fruit bagging, protein bait spraying, destruction of fallen and overripe fruits, early harvest of mature green fruits.
Drew, R.A.I. 1989.The tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) of the Australasian and Oceanian regions. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. Volume 26. 521 pp. (Description and illustration).
Foliaki, S., Armstrong, J. 1997. Heat tolerances of immature stages of Bactrocera facialis and B. xanthodes (Diptera: Tephritidae). pp.239-246 in: Allwood, A.J., and Drew, R.A I., Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. ACIAR Proceedings No 76. 267pp. (Heat tolerance in Tonga).
Heimoana, V., Nemeye, P., Langi, T., Allwood, A.J. 1997. Assessment of protein bait sprays for the control of fruit flies in Chilli and capsicum crops in Tonga. pp.179-182 in: Allwood, A.J., and Drew, R.A I., Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. ACIAR Proceedings No 76. 267pp. (Control).
Leweniqila, L., Heimoana, V., Purea, M., Munro, L., Allwood, A.J., Ralulu, L., Tora Vueti, E. 1997. Seasonal abundances of Bactrocera facialis (Coquillett), B. passiflorae (Froggatt), B. xanthodes (Broun) and B. melanotus (Coquillett) in orchard and forest habitats. pp.121-124 in: Allwood, A.J., and Drew, R.A I., Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. ACIAR Proceedings No 76. 267pp. (Ecology, seasonal abundance).
Lloyd, A., Drew, R.A.I. 1997. Modification and testing of brewery waste yeast as a protein source for fruit fly bait. pp.192-198 in: Allwood, A.J., and Drew, R.A I., Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. ACIAR Proceedings No 76. 267pp. (Control).