Pacific Fruit Fly Project

Pacifly is the Pacific 's fruit fly web page which contains information about economic and non economic species of fruit flies in all the Pacific Island Countries and Territorries. Fruitflies are serious pests throughout tropical and sub tropical countries. They constitute of one of the worlds major insect pest in fresh fruits and fleshy vegetables. In every PICT, there is at least one damaging endemic fruit fly species present. Fruitflies cause direct losses to  fruit production and  in instances  where exotic species became established in a country, very expensive eradication programes had to be carried out. The Pacifly aims to provide detailed information of everything related to Fruit flies.

Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) - ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY
Thursday, 17 January 2013 13:37


Oriental Fruit fly     (Source: USDA - ARS)


DISTRIBUTION: Widespread in tropical Asia (India, Sri Lanka, Burma, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia). In the Pacific, it has been introduced in Hawaii, Guam (detected in 1948, eradicated since 1965),Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (detected in 1936, eradicated since 1965), Nauru (eradicated since 1999), French Polynesia (since July 1996).  The species recorded in September 1996 in Palau, then identified as Oriental fruit fly based on trapped male flies is in fact, two other species of the complex (B. occipitalis and B. philippinensis).  Host fruit surveying carried out in Palau in early 2001 has yielded fresh male and female specimens, that have helped identify correctly the species.  B. dorsalis therefore does not occur in Palau.

HOST PLANTS: A polyphagous species and major pest recorded in Asia from 117 host species, in 76 genera and 37 families (Allwood et al, 1999). Published host records from Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (before eradication), Nauru (before eradication) and French Polynesia are: Detailed host list.

BIOLOGY: Adults mate at dusk. Biology of this species has been extensively studied by USDA-ARS in Hawaii. Heat tolerance studies were also done in Hawaii.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: A very damaging pest everywhere it occurs. In Nauru, before its eradication, Oriental fruit fly and mango fly (B. frauenfeldi) used to infest 95% of mangos, 90% of guavas and almost 10% of soursops. Since its eradication, damage by mango fly on mango and soursop has been negligible.

MALE LURE: Methyl eugenol.

QUARANTINE SURVEILLANCE: Methyl eugenol trapping and regular host fruit surveys of high risk species, especially guava, mango, Tahitian chestnut, Syzygium apples and Tropical almond.

OPTIONS FOR RESPONSE (If newly discovered in a country): Increased trapping, increased host fruit sampling, restriction of fruit movement, protein bait spraying, male annihilation.

CONTROL: Fruit bagging, protein bait spraying, destruction of fallen and overripe fruits, early harvest of mature green fruits.

REFERENCES (Does not include papers from Asia and Hawaii): 
Allwood, A.J., Chinajariyawong, A., Drew, R.A.I., Hamacek, E.L., Hancock, D.L., Hengsawad, C., Jinapin, J.C., Jirasurat, M., Kong Krong, C., Kritsaneepaiboon, S., Leong, C.T.S., and S. Vijaysegaran. 1999. Host plant records for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South-East Asia.  The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Supplement 7. 92 pp. (Complete host list in Asia).
Drew, R.A.I. 1994.The Bactrocera dorsalis complex of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) in Asia. Bulletin of Entomological Research. Supplement Series. Supplement 2. 68 pp. (Description and illustration). 
Mitchell, W.C. 1980. Verification of the absence of Oriental fruit and melon fruit fly following an eradication program in the Mariana Islands. Proceedings, Hawaiian Entomological Society. 23: 239-243.
Steiner
, L.F., Harris, E.J., Cunningham, R.T., Ohinata, K., Kamakahi, D.C. 1970. Eradication of the Oriental fruit fly from the Mariana Islands by the methods of male annihilation and sterile insect release. Journal of Economic Entomology. 63: 131-135. 
Steiner
, L.F., Mitchell, W.C., Harris, E.J., Kozuma, T.T., Fujimoto, M.S. 1965. Oriental fruit fly eradication by male annihilation. Journal of Economic Entomology. 58: 961-964.