B159 - SALMONELLOSIS (S. abortus ovis)

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B159 - SALMONELLOSIS (S. abortus ovis)

Nature of the disease
Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella abortus ovis is responsible for abortions in small Ruminants. 
Classification
OIE, List B disease
Susceptible species
S. abortus ovis is specifically associated to ovine (primary salmonella).
Distribution
S. abortus ovis is found in Europe, USA, and some places in Africa and Asia. It has never been reported in the Pacific Region.
Clinical signs 
Clinical signs are sometimes missing, the disease causes:
  • Late abortions,
  • Retention of placenta,
  • Sometimes mortality of lambs,
Post-mortem findings 
Non fatal disease
Differential diagnosis 
Specimens required for diagnosis 
S. abortus ovis can be isolated from vaginal discharges, placentas or organs of aborted foetus. 

A sero-agglutination test may offer a strong presumption at the flock level.

Transmission   
The bacteria is excreted is shed and faeces and vaginal secretion for many months. Transmission can be done orally or in utero.
Risk of introduction   
S. abortus ovis could be introduced by importation of carrier animals or contaminated forage.
Control / vaccines  
Isolation of aborting ewes and destruction of contaminated bedding and of all products of abortion reduce contamination. Antibiotic treatment during an outbreak is sometimes disappointing. Annual vaccination with dead or living vaccines is advisable in endemic areas.
References
  • Abortion of ewes caused by S. abortus ovis, In Veterinary Medicine, Saunders, Eight ed, 1997, London p. 747
  • Pardon P, Sanchis R, Marly J, Lantier F, Pepin M, Popoff M., Ovine salmonellosis caused by Salmonella abortus ovis, Ann Rech Vet. 1988;19(4):221-35
  • Salmonellosis, In Merck Veterinary Manual, National Publishing Inc. Eight ed, 1998, Philadelphia, p 994