B155 - CONTAGIOUS CAPRINE PLEUROPNEUMONIA

IDevice Icon

B155 - CONTAGIOUS CAPRINE PLEUROPNEUMONIA 

Nature of the disease
Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a contagious disease caused by Mycoplasma capricolum sub-speciae capripneumoniae that causes severe fibrinous pleuropneumonia of goats characterised by respiratory distress, coughing, nasal discharge and high mortality rate.
Classification
OIE List B disease
Susceptible species
CCPP only occurs in goats.
Distribution
CCPP occurs throughout most of Africa, the Middle East, India and Pakistan.
Clinical signs 
Peracute and acute forms of the disease occur when it is introduced into fully susceptible flocks. Chronic cases occur in endemically affected areas.

Peracute form 
Animals die within 1-3 days with minimal respiratory signs.

Acute form 

  • Fever
  • Mucopurulent nasal discharge
  • Excess salivation
  • Coughing and dyspnoea
  • Diarrhoea
  • Rapid loss of condition
  • Mortality rate up to 90%

Chronic form 
Goats are debilitated with chronic cough and nasal discharge.

Post-mortem findings 
In acute cases there is:
  • Serofibrinous pleuritis
  • Unilateral or bilateral pneumonia with varying degrees of lung consolidation
  • Cut surface of lung has granular appearance with copious straw-coloured exudate
  • Bronchial lymph nodes swollen

With chronic cases lungs will be in various stages of resolution with encapsulation of acute lesions and numerous fibrous adhesions.

Differential diagnosis 
Differential diagnosis:
  • Bacterial pneumonia (e.g. pasteurellosis)
  • Other mycoplasma pneumonia
  • Caseous lymphadenitis
Specimens required for diagnosis 
At post-mortem, exudate fluid should be collected from lung lesions together with pleuritic fluid.
Duplicate specimens of active lung lesions — one set should be submitted fresh, the other collected into neutral buffered formalin for histopathology.

Blood samples (10 ml) should be collected from several animals in the affected flock for serology.

Transmission   
CCPP is highly contagious. It is transmitted via the respiratory route and is spread by close contact between goats. Unlike contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, chronic carriers are not as important. CCPP spreads to new areas by the movement of infected goats.
Risk of introduction   
CCPP is most likely to be introduced to a previously free country by the introduction of infected goats.
Control / vaccines  
Where an outbreak occurs in a previously free country, eradication should be attempted by slaughter of all infected and in-contact goats, and the implementation of quarantine and movement controls.

Antimicrobial agents such as tylosin, terramycin or streptomycin can be used to treat clinical cases.
Experimental CCPP vaccines have been produced, but there is no vaccine available for general field use.

References
  • Contagious Caprine, In Merck Veterinary Manual, National Publishing Inc. Eight ed, 1998, Philadelphia, p 1109-1110
  • GEERING WA, FORMAN AJ, NUNN MJ, Exotic Diseases of Animals, Aust Gov Publishing Service, Canberra, 1995, 440p
  • Office International des Epizooties, 2002