B112 - TRICHONOMIASIS

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B112 - TRICHONOMIASIS

Nature of the disease
Trichonomiasis is a disease of cattle due to the infection by a flagellate protozoan, Trichonomas foetus. The disease is world-wide and can cause important economic loss due to abortion and infertility.
Classification
OIE, List B disease
Susceptible species
Bovines.
Distribution
Worldwide, in the Pacific Region only Australia and New Zealand reported it. It has been suspected in New Caledonia. 
Clinical signs 
The main sign is infertility due to embryonic death and resulting in long breeding seasons. Occasionally (5%) pyometra occurs.  

Bulls show no clinical signs.

Post-mortem findings 
Not applicable
Differential diagnosis 
  • Campylobacteriosis,
  • Brucellosis, 
  • Coxiellosis,
  • Leptospirosis,
  • Neosporosis, 
  • IBR/IPV, Bovine 
  • Bovine Virus Diarrhoe/Mucosal Disease.
Specimens required for diagnosis 
Diagnosis can be made by demonstration of the protozoa from vagina or uterus washing liquid or in the semen. The protozoa can be stained and observed under microscope or cultivated or detected by PCR.
Although available serological techniques are not prescribed by the OIE, aborted foetus tissues can be used for immunohistochemistry.
Transmission   
It is sexually transmitted, C. foetus is found in the prepuce of health carrier bulls. It can survive many months in frozen semen. It can also be transmitted from bull to bull by artificial vagina. Cows do not become chronic carriers.
Risk of introduction   
Introduction could occurred through importation of infected bulls or cows, semen, less likely improperly cleaned artificial vaginal.
Control / vaccines  
There is a vaccine but is only efficient in females. Control can be done by treatment of infected bulls with ipronidazole or removal of infected animals.
References
  • Office International des Epizooties, 2002
  • Office Vétérinaire Fédéral Suisse
  • Trichonomiasis, In Merck Veterinary Manual, National Publishing Inc. Eight ed, 1998, Philadelphia, p 10127-1028