104 - BOVINE GENITAL CAMPYLOBACTERIOSIS

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104 - BOVINE GENITAL CAMPYLOBACTERIOSIS

Nature of the disease
Bovine genital campymlobacteriosis or vibriosis is a veneral disease caused by a Gram- bacteriums, Campylobacter fetus sbsp venerealis. The disease causes infertility and embryonic mortality in Cattle.
Classification
OIE list B disease
Susceptible species
Essentially Bovine but also C. fetus venerealis is an opportunistic human pathogen.
Distribution
Distribution is probably worldwilde. In the Pacific Region only Australia and New Zealand reported it. 
Clinical signs 
In cows:
  • Infertility (increased intervals between oestrus or calvings)
  • Metritis,
  • Vaginatis
  • Abortion

In bulls there is no clinical signs.

Post-mortem findings 
Not applicable
Differential diagnosis 
  • Brucellosis, 
  • Coxiellosis,
  • Leptospirosis,
  • Néosporose, 
  • IBR/IPV, Bovine 
  • Bovine Virus Diarrhoe/Mucosal Disease,
  • Trichonomiasis.
Specimens required for diagnosis 
Diagnosis can be made by demonstration of the bacteria from vagina or uterus  and prepuce washing liquid or in the semen. 
  • In bulls samples of semen or of preputial smegma secretions can be collected
  • In cows, mucus samples are obtained by suction, vaginal lavage, or by use of tampons, 
  • Aborted fetuses can also be examined by similar techniques, and wet preparations of the stomach contents can be examined for the organism by dark-field and phase-contrast microscopy 

Serological test is available and is used for herd screening.

Transmission   
It is sexually transmited, C. fetus fetus is found in the prepuce of health carrier bulls. It can survive many months in frozen semen. It can also be transmitted from bull to bull by artificial vagina. Cows do not become chronic carriers.
Risk of introduction   
Introduction could occured through importation of infected bulls or cows, semen, less likey unproperly cleaned artificial vaginal.
Control / vaccines  
There is a vaccine but is forbidden in some countries. 

Control can be done by treatment of infected bulls with streptomycin locally and by injection or removal of infected animals.

References
  • Bovine genital campylobacteriosis, In Merck Veterinary Manual, National Publishing Inc. Eight ed, 1998, Philadelphia, p 539-541
  • Office International des Epizooties, 2002
  • Office Vétérinaire Fédéral Suisse