|Tuesday, 15 January 2013 10:30|
New Caledonia (18,576 km²) is a French Dependency dominated by one large main island (16,192 km², 1639m), with one small island (Île des Pins) and the three Loyalty Islands.
Extensive fruit fly trapping and host fruit surveying was done in New Caledonia by Paul Cochereau between 1965 and 1970 under ORSTOM. Further surveys were done by C. Pinson in 1990-91, under CIRAD, followed by limited activities until 1993. The major ongoing fruit fly programme in New Caledonia was however initiated in 1994. The programme is funded by New Caledonia Territory Department of Agriculture and executed by CIRAD-FLHOR (now under the Institut Agronomique Calédonien).
The fruit fly research facility is located at Pocquereux Research Station. For more information, contact:
Mr. Rémy Amice, Service Vétérinaire et de la Protection des Végétaux,
Cucurbitaceae are non-hosts to fruit flies in New Caledonia Watermelon is exported to New Zealand on this basis
FRUIT FLY SPECIES: There are twelve species of Dacinae, four of which are of economic importance. Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) was introduced into New Caledonia from Australia around or shortly before 1969. Bactrocera psidii is a species endemic to New Caledonia and the second worst pest fruit fly in the Territory, after Queensland fruit fly. Bactrocera curvipennis used to be New Caledonia's main pest species until the introduction of Queensland fruit fly. It is endemic to New Caledonia. Breadfruit fly (Bactrocera umbrosa) is widespread and common in New Caledonia. Bactrocera mucronis (Drew), is a minor pest restricted to New Caledonia, that has been recorded from guava, tropical almond, and from Cerbera manghas. Males come to Cue-lure. There are seven additional less common species, all restricted to New Caledonia, that breed on wild forest hosts. Species attracted to Cue-lure include B. caledoniensis (Drew), the dominant species on Maré, B. aneuvittata (Drew), B. fulvifacies (Perkins), and B. perpusilla (Drew). Methyl eugenol traps collect B. ebenea (Drew), the dominant species on Lifou, and weakly attracts B. paraxanthodes Drew and Hancock. One species found only on Maré, B. grandistylus Drew and Hancock, is not attracted to male lure. There is also one species of Trypetinae, Dirioxa pornia (Walker), that attacks damaged or fallen fruits.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF FRUIT FLIES: The three main polyphagous pest species are B. tryoni, B. psidii and B. curvipennis. B. umbrosa is a pest of breadfruit and jackfruit.
Surveys: 1. Established and maintained a laboratory for fruit fly rearing and undertaking heat tolerance studies, and a facility for holding fruit samples collected in the field, at Pocquereux Research Station. 2. Established permanent trapping sites on three islands of New Caledonia. Trap sites made up of one trap baited with methyl eugenol, one with Cue-lure and one with trimedlure. 3. Collected and held in the laboratory for adult fly emergence 1307 commercial/edible and wild/forest fruit samples. 4. Determined that there are twelve species of fruit flies (Tephritidae: Dacinae) in New Caledonia and compiled host ranges for all species. Used this data as the basis for negotiations on quarantine protocols for export of fruits and vegetables.
Pest status: 5. Confirmed that four species are of economic importance – B. tryoni, B. psidii, B. curvipennis and B. umbrosa.
Quarantine surveillance: 6. Modified the initial fauna surveys into an early warning system as part of New Caledonia's overall quarantine surveillance system. Trapping focused on high-risk locations, such as tourist resorts, urban areas, educational institutions for overseas students, markets, farming areas, diplomatic missions and ports of entry.
Laboratory colonies: 8. Established laboratory colonies of B. tryoni, B. psidii, B. curvipennis and B. umbrosa. 9. Completed studies on the life cycles and rates of development of the reared species in artificial diet.
Host status and export markets: 10. Used the laboratory and field tests to determine non-host status for fruits and vegetables developed by the RMFFP and the New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) Regulatory Authority. 11. Exported watermelon, squash and limes to New Zealand under non-host status quarantine treatment. Values of exports in 1998 were 233,000 NZD for watermelon, 89.000 NZD for lime and 54,000 NZD for squash.
Heat treatments and export markets: 12. Generated and published data on the heat tolerances of early and late eggs, first instar and feeding and non-feeding third instars for B. tryoni, B. curvipennis and B. psidii, and had these data accepted by New Zealand. This research was technically supported by Hort + Research New Zealand. Generated data on cold tolerance for the three species. 13. Developed treatment for mango, eggplant and capsicum using forced hot air and submitted research reports to New Zealand MAF for approval of the treatment. Quarantine treatment uses forced hot air to raise the core temperature of the largest fruit placed in the coolest spot in the chamber, determined by thermal mapping, to 47°C and hold it at that temperature for 20 minutes before hydro-cooling. For capsicum, the treatment specifications are 43°C for 3 hours and 30 minutes.
Development of National expertise: 14. Published in the ACIAR Proceedings No. 76 of the Symposium on the Management of Fruit Flies in the Pacific, four scientific papers on fruit flies in New Caledonia and published a Pest Advisory Leaflet on Fruit Flies in New Caledonia, published in French and in English. 15. Provided training to farmers and exporters and government personnel of New Caledonia on the importance of fruit flies to production and national quarantine, identification, control methods, and quarantine treatments.16. Entomologist attended a one week attachment training in SPC Nabua and Koronivia Research Station from the 2nd to 6th August 2004 on fruit fly and parasitoids rearing techniques.
Emergency response planning: 17. Increased preparedness to detect quickly an incursion of an exotic fruit fly species and formulated an Emergency Response Plan to eradicate any introduction of a new unwanted species.
STATUS OF QUARANTINE SURVEILLANCE (as of October 2007): There are 55 trapping sites, each with one Cue-lure, one methyl eugenol and one trimed lure trap, on the main island (55 sites around Nouméa, on Maré (5 sites) and on Lifou (4 sites). Samples of the following commodities are regularly collected for quarantine surveillance: citrus fruits, guava and mango, . There are fruit fly posters and quarantine bins at the airport. In flight videos are played to incoming flights about quarantine awareness.