|FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA (FSM)|
|Monday, 14 January 2013 12:54|
Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) is a large territory of 57 islands and atolls. Total land mass is 701 km². The country is administratively divided into four states (Kosrae, Pohnpei, Chuuk, Yap), each with its government. The three largest islands are Pohnpei (334 km², 772m), Kosrae (109) km², 629m), and Yap (100 km², 147m).
Fruit fly activities in FSM were initiated in December, 1994 by the Regional Fruit Fly Project (RFFP) funded by UNDP and AusAID. The Project provided a United Nations Volunteer (UNV) who worked in FSM for 2.5 years. The Division of Sectoral Development (Agriculture) of the FSM Department of Economic Affairs coordinates the project and College of Micronesia's Land Grant Program and FSM government have matched the RFFP funds and provided a National counterpart technician. Since the UNV has left (May 1997), the SPC Plant Protection in Micronesia Project has assisted the Fruit Fly Project by the coordination of quarantine surveillance.
The fruit fly research facility is hosted by the College of Micronesia, Land Grant Program Agriculture Experiment Station in Kolonia Town, Pohnpei Island. For additional information, contact:
Mr. John Wichep, Quarantine Coordinator, Agriculture Quarantine Unit
FRUIT FLY SPECIES: Only one species: mango fly (Bactrocera frauenfeldi (Schiner). It is widespread over every islands of FSM, even on remote atolls.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF FRUIT FLIES: Damage assessments have provided data on percent of ripe edible fruits infested by mango fly larvae in FSM: guava (31-91%), tropical almond (69%), Surinam cherry (61%), avocado (57%), Tahitian chestnut (56%), Syzygium spp apples (38-51%), breadfruit (37%), soursop (28%), pond apple (26%), tangerine (20%), carambola (18%), mango (8%), orange (4%), and acerola (3.7%).
Program establishment and surveys. 1. Establishment of a permanent fruit fly research laboratory, including a rearing facility. 2. General survey in all States to verify that mango fly is the only species in FSM. 3. Fruit fly trapping in 78 sites on six volcanic islands and five atolls (30 sites remaining at present). 4. Host fruit surveying that has identified 35 species attacked by mango fly.
Pest status. 5. Detailed data on the levels of damage on each commercial host - see above.
Laboratory colonies. 6. Establishment laboratory colonies of mango flies for research. 7. Experimental determination of the duration of each immature stage of mango fly.
Field control. 8. Preliminary field control experiment by protein bait spraying. 9. Introduction and release of two species of parasitoid wasps (Fopius arisanus released and established on Pohnpei and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata released on Kosrae) for biological control of mango fly.
Post harvest treatments and export markets. 10. Experimental demonstration that limes (Citrus aurantifolia) and Yapese lemons (C. hystrix) are not mango fly hosts, using New Zealand's MAF Regulatory Authority Standard 150.02.02. 11. Initiation of negotiations with USDA for an eventual or conditional lift of the ban to lime and Yapese lemon export to Guam. 12. Preliminary experiments to determine tolerance of immature stages to heat, to eventually develop post harvest treatment of fruits for export.
Development of national expertise. 13. Training of research assistants and State counterpart staff from quarantine and extension.
Data preservation and publication. 14. Development of databases to preserve all raw data from trapping, host surveying, laboratory colonies, and bait spraying experiments. 15. Ten trip reports, one host status testing report, five periodic technical reports, a practical guide to fruit fly surveying and a status report have been produced and distributed. 16. Research results published as four scientific papers and one pest advisory leaflet. 17. A two hour video documentary on fruit fly research and control in FSM has been produced and shown on television.
Emergency response planning. 18. Development of an emergency response plan to apply in case of exotic fruit fly detection in FSM.
STATUS OF QUARANTINE SURVEILLANCE (as of October 2007): There are 36 trapping sites, each with one Cue-lure and one methyl eugenol trap. All states are covered: Pohnpei (13 sites on Pohnpei Island), Kosrae (5 sites), Chuuk (6 sites on Chuuk Lagoon Islands), and Yap (6 sites on Yap Island). High risk commodities regularly sampled on Pohnpei are guava, papaya, Tropical almond, Tahitian chestnut, and Syzygium apples. All trapping and host fruit survey data are compiled on Excel spreadsheets. There are fruit fly posters and quarantine bins at the four State airports, and posters at the wharves. There is a quarantine awareness program running on radio.